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        文獻綜述的寫法

        時間:2019-06-12 13:57:05
        本文是一篇文獻綜述,文獻綜述是研究者在其提前閱讀過某一主題的文獻后,經過理解、整理、融會貫通,綜合分析和評價而組成的一種不同于研究論文的文體。(以上內容來自百度百科)今天為大家推薦一篇文獻綜述,供大家參考。
         
        一、 文獻綜述的含義
         
        文獻閱讀報告,即“文獻綜述”,英文稱之為“survey”、“overview”、“review”。是在對某研究領域的文獻進行廣泛閱讀和理解的基礎上,對該領域研究成果的綜合和思考。一般認為,學術論文沒有綜述是不可思議的。需要將“文獻綜述( Literature Review)”與“背景描述 (Backupground Description)”區分開來。
        我們在選擇研究問題的時候,需要了解該問題產生的背景和來龍去脈,如“中國半導體產業的發展歷程”、“國外政府發展半導體產業的政策和問題”等等,這些內容屬于“背景描述”,關注的是現實層面的問題,嚴格講不是“文獻綜述”,關注的是現實層面問題,嚴格講不是“文獻綜述”。“文獻綜述”是對學術觀點和理論方法的整理。其次,文獻綜述是評論性的( Review 就是“評論”的意思),因此要帶著作者本人批判的眼光 (critical thinking) 來歸納和評論文獻,而不僅僅是相關領域學術研究的“堆砌”。評論的主線,要按照問題展開,也就是說,別的學者是如何看待和解決你提出的問題的,他們的方法和理論是否有什么缺陷?要是別的學者已經很完美地解決了你提出的問題,那就沒有重復研究的必要了。
         
        二、 意義和目的
         
        總結和綜合該方向前人已經做了的工作,了解當前的研究水平,分析存在問題,指出可能的研究問題和發展方向等,并且列出了該方向眾多的參考文獻,這對后人是一筆相當大的財富,可以指導開題報告和論文的寫作。
         
        三、主要內容
         
        (1) 該領域的研究意義。
        (2) 該領域的研究背景和發展脈絡。
        (3) 目前的研究水平、存在問題及可能的原因。
        (4) 進一步的研究課題、發展方向概況。
        (5) 自己的見解和感想。
         
        四、分類
         
        綜述分成兩類。一類是較為宏觀的,涉及的范圍為整個領域、專業或某一大的研究方向;一類是較為微觀的,這類綜述可以涉及到相當小的研究方向甚至某個算法,談的問題更為具體與深入。 前者立意高,范圍廣,面寬,故也不易深入,比較好讀好懂。這對初入道者、欲對全局有所了解的讀者而言很有參考價值。然而,欲深入課題的研究,則希望能有后一類的綜述為自己鳴鑼開道,這會節約很多的時間與精力,但往往不能遂人意,于是只好旁證博引,由自己來完成該課題的綜述。當寫學位論文時,我們要寫的也就是這類結合自己研究課題而寫就的綜述。
         
        五、難點
         
        一篇好的文獻綜述既高屋建瓴,又腳踏實地;既探頣索隱,又如醍醐灌頂。文獻綜述顧名思義由“綜”和“述”組成。前半部分的“綜”不算太難,根據所查閱大量的文獻進行綜合的歸類、提煉、概括即可做到的話。后半部分的評“述”與分析則是一篇“綜述”質量高下的分界線,這需要融入作者自己理論水平、專業基礎、分析問題、解決問題的能力,在對問題進行合情合理的剖析基礎上,提出自己獨特的見解。
        六、如何收集資料
        雖說,盡可能廣泛地收集資料是負責任的研究態度,但如果缺乏標準,就極易將人引入文獻的泥沼。
        技巧一:瞄準主流。主流文獻,如該領域的核心期刊、經典著作、專職部門的研究報告、重要化合物的觀點和論述等,是做文獻綜述的“必修課”。而多數大眾
        媒體上的相關報道或言論,雖然多少有點價值,但時間精力所限,可以從簡。怎樣摸清該領域的主流呢?建議從以下幾條途徑入手:一是圖書館的中外學術期刊,找到一兩篇“經典”的文章后“順藤摸瓜”,留意它們的參考文獻。質量較高的學術文章,通常是不會忽略該領域的主流、經典文獻的。二是利用學校圖書館的“中國期刊網”、“外文期刊數據庫檢索”和外文過刊閱覽室,能夠查到一些較為早期的經典文獻。三是國家圖書館,有些上世紀七八十年代甚至更早出版的社科圖書,學校圖書館往往沒有收藏,但是國圖卻是一本不少(國內出版的所有圖書都要送繳國家圖書館),不僅如此,國圖還收藏了很多研究中國政治和政府的外文書籍,從互聯網上可以輕松查詢到。
        技巧二:隨時整理,如對文獻進行分類,記錄文獻信息和藏書地點。做博士論文的時間很長,有的文獻看過了當時不一定有用,事后想起來卻找不著了,所以有時記錄是很有必要的。羅仆人就積累有一份研究中國政策過程的書單,還特別記錄了圖書分類號碼和藏書地點。同時,對于特別重要的文獻,不妨做一個讀書筆記,摘錄其中的重要觀點和論述。這樣一步一個腳印,到真正開始寫論文時就積累了大量“干貨”,可以隨時享用。
        技巧三:要按照問題來組織文獻綜述。看過一些文獻以后,我們有很強烈的愿望要把自己看到的東西都陳述出來,像"竹筒倒豆子"一樣,洋洋灑灑,蔚為壯觀。仿佛一定要向讀者證明自己勞苦功高。我寫過十多萬字的文獻綜述,后來發覺真正有意義的不過數千字。文獻綜述就像是在文獻的叢林中開辟道路,這條道路本來就是要指向我們所要解決的問題,當然是直線距離最短、最省事,但是一路上風景頗多,迷戀風景的人便往往繞行于迤邐的叢林中,反面“亂花漸欲迷人眼”,“曲徑
        通幽”不知所終了。因此,在做文獻綜述時,頭腦時刻要清醒:我要解決什么問題,人家是怎么解決問題的,說的有沒有道理,就行了。
        綜述是你查閱相關文獻的成果。任何研究都要建立在前人的基礎上,并且遵守學術傳統,而不是空穴來風。你需要告訴讀者,關于這個問題前人研究到了何種地步,有什么缺陷,應該在哪些方面進行拓展。這一方面是對前人研究的尊重,另一方面也表明了你的文章價值何在。任何與本文相關的重要成果都應當在綜述中得到體現,并且在參考文獻中列出。綜述不是概述,不能泛泛地引用和概括,要有揚棄,特別是有批評。否則,如果別人都做好了,要你寫文章干嘛。綜述比較容易看出作者對該領域所下的工夫,因為作者需要廣泛閱讀,理解不同論文在關鍵假設和模型上的主要分歧。好的綜述本身就是一篇獨立的文章。
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